Showing boat model sailing ship, the American brig 1812. Boats on a scale of 1 to 50.
Medway 1742 Warship. Fourth rate 60 guns. Starboard broadside
During the brief campaign, Morgan used surprise, mobility and superiority in morale to cross the isthmus without any serious opposition from Spanish militia.
At Guayabal and again at Venta de Cruces, blocking forces melted away when probed by the buccaneer vanguard. This gave the buccaneers an advantage in morale by the time they reached the city of Panama, where the Spanish formed a line of battle at Mata Asnillos, a mile in front of the city. The 1,200 militia infantry were drawn up in six ranks, while their flanks were protected by militia cavalry, 200 horsemen on each side. Although it was not mentioned if artillery pieces were present, they would have been deployed in front of the infantry. Morgan began his final advance, ‘red and green banners clearly visible to the Spaniards’, and he deployed into a three—deep line, his force split into three divisions. The left flank was commanded by the Dutch buccaneer Laurens Prins, who advanced in a wide sweep around the Spanish right flank and occupied a hill overlooking the Spanish line. This stung the Spaniards into committing to an attack, but it also disrupted their secret weapon. The Spanish commander Juan Perez de Guzman had collected a herd of cattle and kept them behind his infantry line. His intention was to let them pass through his lines and stampede them into the buccaneers, disrupting them just before the Spanish foot advanced into contact. The advance by Prins scared the cattle drovers, who fled, leaving the cattle to wander through the Spanish lines (see illustration page 53). A simultaneous advance on Morgan’s men and on the hill held by Prins ended in disaster. Concentrated volley fire from the buccaneers felled the Spanish, who lost over 100 militiamen in the first volley alone. Stampeding cattle and a withering fire were enough to break the Spaniards, who fled the field, leaving between 400 and 500 dead and wounded. As Perez de Guzman stated, ‘hardly did our men see some fall dead and others wounded but they turned their backs and fled’. This was not completely fair, as even veteran infantry, particularly those who suffered 40 per cent casualties in a few minutes, would be inclined to break. As in numerous other actions, superior buccaneer firepower and tactical initiative proved more than a match for the Spanish militiamen who opposed them. Читать далее
Offensive action by the Spanish was a second cause of battle. A Spanish invasion of Jamaica in I6S8 by 550 troops and artillery from Vera Cruz was defeated when Christopher Myngs met them with 500 buccaneers and ex—soldiers from Port Royal (then called Cagway). The Spaniards were decimated by volley fire, then surrendered en masse, and the captured guns were dragged back to Cagway. Henry Morgan easily ambushed and defeated a Spanish force marching to the relief of Porto Bello in I668. During the Chevalier de Grammont’s campaign against Campeche, a Spanish relief force was defeated as it approached the city from the north in August I68S, while a week later a buccaneer column was in turn beaten by the Spanish at Hampolol in the Yucatan Peninsula. This last action marked a change in the status quo, where better—trained and led Spanish forces were able to defeat buccaneers in open battle. This Spanish victory was repeated in 1691 during a Spanish invasion of the French..held island of Saint Domingue (formerly Hispaniola). The French tried to block the Spanish advance along the north coast of the island at Sabane de Limonade. The resulting battle, fought on 21 January 1691, saw the blocking force of heavily outnumbered buccaneers defeated and the survivors put to the sword. In the summer of 1694, Jamaica was invaded by French buccaneers led byJean..Baptiste Ducasse. The local English garrison at the landing site was no match for the buccaneers, so a British..backed force of buccaneers was formed in Port Royal. Before they could march on their French counterparts, Ducasse withdrew back to Saint Domingue.
Most of these actions involved forces of 500 to 1,500 men per side, and Читать далее
The attack would use the element of surprise to achieve its two main objectives. The first was to prevent the civilian population from escaping. Once rounded up they were often held prisoner in a suitably large building, usually a church. The second objective was to overrun the garrison, assaulting any forts if necessary, but by preference, capturing them by stealth and subterfuge. Once they held the town the buccaneers would sack it, and if necessary they would torture their captives to make them reveal where they hid their valuables. Often ransom demands would be sent to the regional governor, when the buccaneers would threaten to destroy the city if payment was not forthcoming. After several days, the buccaneers would sail away, taking whatever slaves they captured to sell in the markets of Jamaica or the West Indies. At some agreed rendezvous they would then anchor their ships and divide the plunder, allowing the various buccaneer crews to go their own separate ways.
This basic scenario had several variations, including using a city as a base for further attacks into the.hinterland, or even using it as a base for a large expedition to another city. The effect on the towns and cities of the Spanish Main was catastrophic. One Spanish resident of Cartagena noted that most of the towns in what are now Venezuela and Colombia had been sacked at least twice and burned once, while others such as Maracaibo and Santa Marta were sacked or burned regularly. Some settlements such as Riohacha had simply been abandoned, as their inhabitants left for the relative safety of well—defended cities such as Cartagena or Havana. Читать далее