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Мар 25 15

Historical and Descriptive Narrative

Автор: warrior

His political friends rallied round; the press was favourable; petitions were presented; and strings were pulled. In 1832, Cochrane achieved the first of his objectives by being granted a Royal Pardon for the Stock Exchange conviction and restored to his original position in the Navy List. Indeed, as the list had moved steadily upwards during the intervening 17 years, Cochrane found himself reappointed as a Rear-Admiralof the Blue.

tail ship

Encouraged by this success, he began to lobby for the restoration of the Knighthood of the Bath that had been stripped from him in 1814. Cochrane’s case for rehabilitation was greatly helped by the appearance of a series of books that publicised the heroic aspects of his naval career. First, in1824, Maria Graham published her Journal of a Residence in Chileduring the Year 1822. читать полностью…

Мар 22 15

Alexander Caldeclough

Автор: warrior

With his financial situation deteriorating, Cochrane began to look round for other sources of money. In 1839, he put in a claim for Royal Navy half-pay between 1814 and 1832, ignoring the fact that he had been earning large sums in South America and Greece during this period. Cochrane firmly believed that he had suffered financially and psychologically as a result of the Stock Exchange conviction and, now that he had been given a Royal Pardon, was convinced that he was entitled to compensation for what he had lost.


The full extent of what this meant was revealed in Observations on Naval Affairs, in which he listed his claims as being £4000 for 18 year’s half-pay; £5000 for the fine and costs of the Stock Exchangetrial;£40,000 for the loss of a legacy from his rich uncle Basil,who had been turned against him by the ‘aspersions and insinuations of those around him’; and £50,000 for the loss of the Culross estate for similar reasons. It was soon made clear to Cochrane that he had no chance of getting the British Government to swallow any of this. He therefore pinned his hopes on South America and on the huge debts that he was convinced were owed to him by Chile and Brazil. Cochrane’s initial calculations put these amounts at £126,000 – though the total steadily grew and he thought up more and more claims. читать полностью…

Мар 20 15

maritime forces

Автор: warrior

This time, he accepted command of the Greek Navy in its war for freedom from Turkish oppression, convinced that the squadron of armed paddle steamers he intended to bring with him would sweep the enemy from the seas. But there, Cochrane’s career as First Admiral was neither happy nor distinguished. In two years even he could achieve little. The military situation was chaotic, the Greek maritime forces were unreliable and undisciplined, few steamships arrived, and the techniques Cochrane had used so successfully in Chile and Brazil fell embarrassingly flat.


When Greek independence did come, it had little todo with Cochrane’s activities but was due to allied intervention and the destruction of the Turkish Navy at the Battle of Navarino by the combined squadrons of Britain, Russia and France. Depressed by this apparent failure, he retired to Italy to restore his spirits. читать полностью…

Мар 19 15


Автор: warrior

In the north, Bolivar was now ready to go at the head of some 10,000 men –3500 Colombians under Antonio de Sucre, 3000 Peruvians under José La Mar – the former American-born Governor of Callao who had now joined the patriot ranks, 500 artillerymen, and 1500 cavalry, including a brigade of lancers commandedby William Miller. Learning of the division within the Spanish forces, Bolivar seized his opportunity. InMay 1824, he ledhis army forward on another epic march across the mountains of Peru. Advancing in three divisions, his men snaked up the high passes, across rocky defiles, through narrow mountain gorges and over rushing torrents, often only able to keep in contact with the units ahead and with the line of march by bugle calls.

tall ship

Without the careful planning that had marked San Martin’s crossing of the Andes six years
before, there were heavy losses of men and animals from exhaustion, snow blindness and altitude sickness. читать полностью…

Мар 17 15

HMS Conway

Автор: warrior

It was not the way to win hearts and minds. Meanwhile, Cochrane’s bag of prizes increased. As he
made his way down the coast he seized seven more British merchantmen in Peruvian ports – Admiral Cockburn, Joseph, Robert Fuge,Mary, Rebecca (2), Robert and Lord Cathcart, though the last was not taken over by a Chilean prize crew and escaped on the first dark night. Captain Basil Hall, who was patrolling the coast in HMS Conway, sent details of these fresh detentions to Sir Thomas Hardy in Valparaiso. Hall had also discovered that Cochrane had changed hisstyle and that,instead of detaining alleged blockade runners, he was freeing them on purchase of a trading ‘licence’ costing 18 percent ofthe value of the cargo.8 Joseph, Robert Fuge and Admiral Cockburn paid Cochrane’s licence feeand were released – the latter supplying, in place of cash, much needed cordage and rope for the Chilean Squadron. читать полностью…

Мар 15 15

The cross examination of Martin Guise is illustrative

Автор: warrior

A month later, the Marquis of Torre Tagle brought the fortified town of Trujillo into the patriot camp. At the beginning of December, the desertion of the Royal Numancia Regiment to the patriot side was the first in a steady stream of defections. True, there was no widespread national uprising, but the royalist regime in Peru slowly began to unravel. Trade was at a standstill; starvation threatened as food supplies were cut by Cochrane’s blockade; and, to cap it all, the coast was swept with an epidemic of fever. In fact it did more damage to San Martin’s army than the Spanish and at the end of February1821 Paroissien estimated that 900 men, including the Captain General who was spitting blood, were sick. читать полностью…

Мар 13 15

Likewise Freeman

Автор: warrior

Likewise Freeman, who had been a master’s mate in the Royal Navy during the Bombardment of Algiers by Lord Exmouth in 1816, had played a prominent role in Cochrane’s attack on Callao with rockets and explosion vessels. Many were surprised that at such a crucial moment, time was being wasted on anapparently trivial matter. Cochrane knew that the court martial would disrupt his plans for the next attack, but he stillrefused to postpone it.Hisfollowers ensured that Guise was unjustly blamed for the delay. читать полностью…

Мар 10 15


Автор: warrior

A fleet of over fifty ships Sail

Cochrane had announced that he intended to use the captured frigate as a platform from which to attack other vessels in the harbour and had ordered that, as soon as Esmeralda had been secured, Lieutenants Esmond and Morgell of O’Higgins should board the brigs Pezuelaand Maipú, while Lieutenants Bell and Robertson of Lautaro and Grenfell of Independencia cast adrift the nearest hulks and merchantmen. Whether he seriously believed that such a difficult feat was possible is difficult to say. At least one experienced observer, Captain Basil Hall of Conway, doubted it, and thought it was just rhetoric to inspire the men. In the event, it proved an impossible ambition: fired by the adrenalin of victory, the British seamen broke into the spirit room and – not for the first time – became dead drunk; while their Chilean comrades began to loot the ship. читать полностью…

Мар 5 15

Captain William Shirreff

Автор: warrior

By this time, the position of the royalists in Peru was becoming desperate. Foreign observers were struck by the contrast between the prosperity of liberated Chile and the impoverishment of Peru. In Valparaiso, the harbour was packed with shipping, the customs wharfs were piled high with goods, and the anchorage filled with ships unloading foreign merchandise and loading wine and corn. In Peru it was a different story. In Callao, the customs houses were empty, the were neglected and the few ships at anchor were corralled by gun-boats. The countryside was impoverished after years of war, and the population was depressed, gloomy and suspicious. There was also a general hostility to foreigners, especially the British whose nationals could be seen manning the Chilean warships and whose government was widely believed to be helping the rebels in order to advance its own sinister intentions in the region.

Shipbuilding, Timber And Bases

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Фев 28 15

O’Higgins and the Chilean Government

Автор: warrior

Hardy had good reason to give this advice, for he knew that many of the ships involved were liable to seizure because they were indulging in dubious commercial practices. He phrased it delicately in letters to the Admiralty, writing ‘the of British capital is obliged to be coloured and introduced in various shapes.’21 What he meant was that, faced with complicated Spanish colonial import regulations on the one hand, and novel Chilean blockading rules on the other, British ships were resorting to an umber of shady devices in order to disguise the true origin of their cargoes.


These included unloading and reshipping goods at Gibraltar, and carrying two different sets of manifests and papers. O’Higgins and the Chilean Government knew this too, and its blockading decrees explicitly prohibited such practices. But the last thing they wanted were international complications over the arrest of foreign merchantmen. читать полностью…