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Июл 15 14

The Capture of Valdivia

Автор: warrior

The Capture of Valdivia

It leavesyou free tooperate inits interests according to circumstances.

Cochrane, however, was his own sternest critic. Although in public he was resentful ofany outside criticism and incapable of admitting mistakes, in private he was deeply depressed by anything he sawas a failure. The events of his early life had given him a strong sense of insecurity. The death of his mother when he was no more than a child, and his father’s preoccupations with inventions and money problems, had left him desperate for the approval of his superiors, and fullofforeboding that itmight not be forthcoming.

Cochrane ship

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Июл 8 14

Cochrane reimposed

Автор: warrior

Keen to make his point and replenish his supplies, Cochrane reimposed the blockade with San Martin, Araucano and Pueyrredon while Captain Guise was ordered withLautaro andGalvarino to attack the fort at Pisco and seize the shipping and supplies sheltering under its guns. Unfortunately, contrary winds delayed their arrival so that the attack took place in broad daylight on 7 November.

Guise carried out his mission successfully, but Miller was wounded, taking three musket balls in the body, and another senior officer was killed – this time it was Colonel Charles, the commander ofthe marines. Charles was a Woolwich trained officer who had served with Sir Robert Wilson’s irregulars in Portugal during the Napoleonic Wars and had later been seconded to the Russian army for the campaigns in Germany. As Maria Graham subsequently wrote, ‘he was a brave and excellent officer but deserved a better fate than to be killed at the taking of so paltry afortress. читать полностью…

Июн 21 14

Shipmodelling exhibition. Photo

Автор: warrior

Shipmodelling exhibition. Photo. Start here

Винница. Судомодельная выставка

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Июн 19 14

Shipmodelling exhibition. Photo

Автор: warrior
Riggins

I made a number of photos from the show. Try some add comments. By the pics. Photos are not studio, but clickable.

Судомодельная выставка, Винница

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Июн 16 14

The Callao Campaign 2

Автор: warrior

The correspondence ended with Cochrane pleased that he had won the argument. But alas, the realobjective was overlooked. There was no exchange of prisoners. On 22 March, Cochrane tried another destructive foray against Callao, this time using three prizes Victoria, Barbara and Lucero – the first two converted into fire ships, the last into an explosion vessel packed with gunpowder. With O’Higgins providing protection, the three ships advanced against the port covered by Forster in a bomb vessel and Lieutenant Wynter in a gunboat when the wind suddenly dropped to the lightest of breezes. Reluctantly, Cochrane called off the attack. Unfortunately, the explosion vessel under Lieutenant Nicolas Lawson ofLautaro had gone too far and was hit by fire from the shore batteries before she could get away. Cochrane was now convinced that further
action against theSpanish base was impractical. At the beginning of April therefore, leavingChacabucoon patrol off Callao, he withdrew with the rest ofhis ships to Huacho tofillhiswater casks. Itwas there thatBlanco
Encalada and the brigs found him on 4 April.

It has been claimed that these books provide corroborative evidence of the truth of Cochrane’s allegations. In fact this is not so. All three writers were intimates of Cochrane during his time in Chile and Peru, and each repeated the admiral’s own bitter version of events – indeed, they were primed to do so. The result of all this, is that for 150 years it is the Cochrane interpretation of the history that has been accepted as the truth and repeated without challenge in innumerable biographies. The aim of this book is to describe what really happened during the war in the Pacific. It is also to reassess Lord Cochrane’s behaviour in a campaign where dramatic opportunities for action and administrative worries – both real and imaginary – brought out the best and the worst of him. It does not repeat yet again the version of events put forward by Cochrane and those who today would be called cronies and spin doctors, but tells the true story as it emerges from original documents, letters, dispatches, diaries and newspapers of the time. Ironically, the task has been made easier by Lord Cochrane’s reluctance to throw away any piece of correspondence that went across his desk. The mountain of unedited and uncensored personal and official papers he left behind him provide a major source of information. They can be found in original, duplicate or microfilm form in numerous locations, principally the National Archives of Scotland and the respective naval archives of Chile and Peru. For the convenience of readers, when these documents are cited, it is their location in the National Archives of Scotland that is given rather than the place where they may have been actually consulted. Thanks to the work of David J. Cubitt, these papers are now more easily penetrable. Likewise, wheredocuments have been published – and South Americans are very good at doing that – it is that source that is quoted as being the most accessible. I would like to express my thanks to the directors and staffs of all these archival collections, together with those of the National Maritime Museum Greenwich, the National Archives in Kew, Canning House in London, the Essex County Archives, the University of Liverpool Special Collections, the Club Naval in Valparaiso and the Archivo General de la Marina, Madrid, for help and assistance over many years.

Cochrane, of course, simply saw it as enemy territory, which should be attacked by any means. O’Higgins and hiscolleagues did not agree. читать полностью…

Июн 14 14

The Callao Campaign

Автор: warrior

Then there were the batteries, which guarded the port – so massive that he must have begun to understand why his orders had urged caution and the avoidance of any engagement with them. His initial foray against Callao may have been frustrated, but with typical resilience Cochrane was already planning another attack. It came on 2 March, when the boats of the squadron led by Captain Forster and Major Miller seized San Lorenzo. Although the island was little more than a dreary outcrop of sand and rock without a scrap of vegetation, it was three miles from Callao and an ideal base from which to blockade the port. Cochrane also established a laboratory there to experiment with the explosives and primitive torpedoes with which he planned to harass the enemy. The first victim, however, was William Miller, who was dreadfully burned preparing charges for an explosion vessel. It took him six weeks to recover.

Battle of Cartagena

The liberation of 29 Chilean soldiers who had been kept on the island in chains for eight years reminded Cochrane of Article 9 of his orders. читать полностью…

Июн 9 14

Lord Cochrane’s contribution to independence

Автор: warrior

Eventually, Rodil accepted the inevitable and, in January 1826, surrendered the fortress. When the gates were opened, only 444 soldiers had survived the siege – thousands of troops and civilians had perished. Rodil, however, lived on, and returned toSpain asanational hero. Meanwhile, news of the loss of Asia and Achilles, and the absence ofany relief or reinforcement convinced Quintanilla in Chiloé that the end had come and, when Blanco Encalada arrived in command of the last Chilean expedition in1825, he too capitulated. By the end of January 1826, the Spanish Empire on mainland South America was no more.

ship

In Brazil, Lord Cochrane’s contribution to independence was as decisive as that he had made in Chile or Peru. Given command of its navy as First Admiral on a huge salary, Cochrane sailed from Rio de Janeiro to confront the Portuguese forces occupying the eastern seaboard on 1 April 1823. Ina brilliant campaign of only sixmonths, he blockaded the enemy’s major arsenal in Bahia, expelled an army and a greatly superior naval squadron, and harried it out of Brazilian waters and across the Atlantic. Then, using an audacious trick, he secured the evacuation of the Portuguese garrisons in Maranhão and Pará on the northern coast. Largely as a result of Cochrane’s efforts, by December 1823 Brazil had been cleared of enemy troops. It took time for the fact to be accepted diplomatically, but the country was, to all intents and purposes, independent. читать полностью…

Июн 7 14

Commodore Guruzeta Chilean Navy

Автор: warrior

Only Olañeta’s force remained at large, and this was destroyed – and its commander killed – the following March. When the news of Ayacuchoreached Callao, Commodore Guruzeta decided tosalvage what naval forces he could for his King. Ordering the corvette and brig to return to Spain via Cape Horn, he sailed with Asia and Achilles for Manila. Alas, Guruzeta never reached his destination. Open protests from his crews, many of whom were pressganged South Americans, forced him tohand over the ships to the local patriot authorities. Asia was surrendered to the Mexicans inMonterrey, while Achilles made for Valparaiso where she was taken into the Chilean Navy.

Commodore Guruzeta Chilean Navy

After Ayacucho, the mainland of Spanish America was firmly inpatriot hands. But two tiny Spanish outposts stubbornly continued to resist in the name of King Ferdinand –the Chiloé Archipelago and theCastles of Callao. The Chileans sent two expeditions against Chiloé between 1822 and 1824, but none made any impression. читать полностью…

Июн 5 14

Smaller patriot warships

Автор: warrior

A month later, on 8 October, Guruzeta finally sailed out toconfront Guise with theAsia, Achilles, a corvette and two locally armed brigs. Cambridge, Tartar and theUnited Statesfollowed them out to watch. Guise and his four smaller consorts immediately dispersed to escape into theintermittent mist,theProtector being chased by Asia until the frigate’s superior speed outdistanced her. But Guruzeta lacked the killerinstinct and was too gentlemanly todestroy the smaller patriot warships and left them unmolested. As he wrote loftily in his dispatch, ‘these small vessels were so contemptible and so badly handled on that day, that I felt it unseemly to occupy myself with them and concentrated solely on the Prueba.

ship

Guruzeta then led his force back to Callao having achieved nothing. After minor repairs, Guise and his blockading ships were soon back in station. Rodil was furious and refused even to speak to Guruzeta. читать полностью…

Июн 3 14

Lima tosafeguard British lives and property

Автор: warrior

Unfortunately, by the time the ship reached Peru inMay, there was no longer an independent state with which relations could be established. Nevertheless, Captain Maling made himself useful. Following their defeat at Junin, the royalists had garrisoned Callao but had sent all other available troops to join Canterac’sarmy. As a result, the area around Lima became a lawless no-man’s land haunted by bandits and desperadoes, many of them deserters or unpaid soldiers.

niagara wide

And when the newly appointed British Consul-General for Lima, Mr Rowcroft, went ashore with his daughter in a private capacity wearing the uniform of the City of London Volunteers, he was promptly shot and killed in an altercation with jumpy security forces. Following a solemn local ceremonial with ships firing minute guns and flags at half mast, Rowcroft’s body was sent back toEngland Nelson-fashionin a barrel of spirits. Following this incident, the Spanish authorities allowed Cambridge to send 120 Royal Marines to Lima tosafeguard British lives and property. For two months between August and October they were the only agents of law and order in the capital. читать полностью…